Gardner's socio-educational model
While Gardner (1982) identified a number of factors which are involved when learning a second language (L2), it was earlier work by Gardner and Lambert (1959) which laid the foundations for the model. Gardner (1982) attempts to interrelate four features of second language acquisition: the social and cultural milieu, individual learner differences, the setting and context. In Gardner's model, the most influential in second language acquisition are the four individual differences: intelligence, language aptitude, motivation, and situational anxiety.
 Revised socio-education model
Gardner (2001) presents a schematic representation of this model. There are four sections, external influences, individual differences, language acquisition contexts, and outcomes. In the socio-educational model, motivation to learn the second language includes three elements. First, the motivated individual expends effort to learn the language. Second, the motivated individual wants to achieve a goal. Third, the motivated individual will enjoy the task of learning the language.
Role of motivation in language learning
Integrative Motivation: Cookes & Schmidt (1991) identified as the learner's orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. It means that learner's positive attitudes towards the target language group and the desire to integrate into the target language community. Instrumental Motivation: Hudson (2000) characterised the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language. Instrumental motivation underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through L2 achievement.
 Integrative Motivation from the Socio-Educational Model
The one who is integratively motivated to learn the second language has a desire to identify with another language community, and tends to evaluate learning situation positively.