BEGINNING: When learner enters and starts learning
ATTITUDES: Toward the environment, teacher, subject matter, and self
NEEDS: The basic need within the learner at the time of learning
-- Make the conditions that surround the subject positive.
-- Positively confront the possibly erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underlie a negative learner attitude.
-- Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear.
-- Plan activities to allow learners to meet esteem needs.
During: When learner is involved in the body or main content of the learning process.
STIMULATION: The stimulation processes affecting learner during the learning experience.
AFFECT: The emotional experience of the learner while learning.
-- Change style and content of the learning activity.
-- Make learner reaction and involvement essential parts of the learning process, that is, problem solving, role playing, stimulation.
-- Use learner concerns to organize content and to develop themes and teaching procedures.
-- Use a group cooperation goal to maximize learner involvement and sharing.
ENDING: When learner is completing the learning process.
COMPETENCE: The competence value for the learner that is a result of the learning behaviors.
REINFORCEMENT: The reinforcement value attached to the learning experience, for the learner.
-- Provide consistent feedback regarding mastery of learning.
-- Acknowledge and affirm the learners' responsibility in completing the learning task.
-- When learning has natural consequences, allow them to be congruently evident.
-- Provide artificial reinforcement when it contributes to successful learning, and provide closure with a positive ending.